ADDICTIVE SCREEN DISORDER-ASD

ASD is not currently a formal diagnosis found in the American Psychiatric Association DSM 5 manual of diagnostic categories yet Serious implications related to academic decline, productivity, compromised relationships, mental health and health related issues.  Recurrent “neuroeconomic” research outcomes more than substantiate existing manifestations that will likely make ASD a global disorder. “Neuroeconomics” refers to the study of the neurological, biological and psychological outcomes of exposure to a variety of incidents and behaviors. In this case ASD refers to the symptoms now associated with repetitive exposure to television screens, gaming screens, computer screens and smartphone screens. 

Category Criteria

NOTE: As you read through the list of symptoms/behaviors listed below, I’m sure you will agree they could easily lead to misdiagnosis if we fail to evaluate for the level of screen exposure of those presenting such symptoms today.

Based on research, this future diagnosis would likely be given when:

A. Three or more of the following symptoms are present and represent a change in functioning. Onset can be progressive and or sudden. 

1. Difficulty with tasks and problems requiring focused attention

2. Easily distracted into off task behaviors  

3. Lower test scores compared to those limiting screen usage 

4. Weakened declarative memory 

5. ADD behavior and symptoms 

6. Decrease in productivity 

7. Increase in depression and social anxiety

8. Compromised relationships 

9. Compromised ability to empathize and be attuned to others 

10. Weight gain/ weight loss 

11. Delayed sleep/difficulty falling asleep /reduction in hours of sleep

12. Addictive stimulant driven behaviors and withdrawal reactions 

B. The symptoms cause impairment in learning, academic/occupational performance, relationships, mental health and other health related issues. 

C.  Symptoms are not attributable to substance usage or other medical conditions.

D. Daily screen time for children 3-18 years is three hours or more. APA recommends no more than three hours for this group and no screen time for children two years and under (14). (Most are far exceeding this time period.)

Diagnostic Features 

NOTE: It is important to note that the percentage of kids from infants up to eight years of age who have used mobile devices has nearly doubled from 38% to 72% since 2011 (17). Continued usage increases are expected, as are the problems associated with screen exposure especially in early years when brain functions are developing. (Comments are taken from a variety of articles referenced at the end of the post- ( # ) indicates referenced article)


Learning-Cognition-GPA Scores-ADHD

The research is especially strong in the area of cognitive deficits resulting from screen exposure. French scientists Slyvain Charron and Etienne Koelich have discovered that our brains struggle to process attention across more than two tasks at any given time, so when you think you might be multitasking, what your brain is actually doing is rapidly skipping from task to task, not focusing on any on thing for any significant time (6). Therefore devoting single attention to something, especially if it’s something new you’re attempting to learn, is not easy with a brain predisposed to rapidly skipping from task to task due the brain’s rewiring from repetitive and prolonged multimedia usage.

Furthermore learning essentially relies on being able to place information in context, something the conditioned multitasking brain is increasingly unable to cope with. Think about this. Ten years ago, the average attention span was 12 minutes – now it’s just 5 seconds (1). Other studies show that 25% of users forget names and details of friends and even relatives (1). Not only does short- term memory suffer, declarative memory also suffers. Declarative memory (long-term memory) refers to applying material learned earlier to current situations/problems/explanations (13). These alterations do reduce academic outcomes. Studies have found, for example, a correlation between lower GPA averages in college students using Facebook than those who avoid Facebook (5). 

Susan Greenfield, Professor of Synaptic Pharmacology at Oxford University, argues that because real-world experiences are inherently slower than online ones, especially the ability to process multiple streams of information across multiple networks, a heightened increase in attention-deficit disorder (ADD) behaviors results (10). This also has implications for classroom practices. For example, participants’ multitasking during a lecture scored lower than those who did not multitask. And, this is critical, those who were in direct view of those multitasking also scored lower on tests than those who were not in direct view (16). 

A survey from Hearst Communications found that productivity levels of people that used social networking sites were 1.5% lower than those that did not (8). One has to wonder what will happen when future generations of screen addicted users are unable to call upon the focus and attention needed to examine situations in depth, unable to avoid shallow reactions and responses and become more reactive rather than proactive.  

Anxiety/Depression

Fear and anxiety about face –to-face interactions with others, being negatively evaluated by others, embarrassed, humiliated, rejected and bullied are now associated with multimedia usage (17). Regression analyses revealed that increased media multitasking was associated with higher depression and social anxiety symptoms, even after controlling for overall media use and the personality traits of neuroticism and extraversion. The unique association between media multitasking and these measures of psychosocial dysfunction suggests that the growing trend of multitasking with media may represent a unique risk factor for mental health problems related to mood and anxiety (5). Others have found that 3 hours of television watching per day was linked to worse conduct (13).

Compromised Empathy and Attunement

We are primarily social beings. In fact our neurology, biology and psychology are designed to connect and interact with others face –to-face. Online communications do not fulfill this basic need. For example, watching videos was strongly associated with more negative feelings. However, face-to-face communication was positively associated with feelings of social success and consistently associated with a range of positive socio-emotional outcomes (5). Studies on infant brains have shown that knowledge retention is only truly possible for the long-term when accompanied with personal interaction, an aspect that becomes a lot more important as we age (15). To best appreciate how our systems are “wired” to connect and interact, and, in so doing, learn critical social skills from others, it is important to appreciate the importance of  “mirror neurons and their role in learning, empathy, attunement and fulfilling the need to be connected. I recommend watching https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xmx1qPyo8Ks a Nova produced video on mirror neurons.

If you watched the above video it is not surprising to read that screen users experience compromised levels of empathy and experience the fears associated with social anxiety (10). It has also been said that we are becoming more of an ADD culture (2, 3). Though we’re no less social, we are more distracted. Putting down our social media connections to focus on the ones right in front of us is something that takes a real effort. Just observe how parents interact (don’t) interact with their children while in a restaurant-all are easily distracted by their smartphones, mini- iPads and gaming devices. Despite its goal to connect, social media can instead isolate some teens and provide a forum for bullying. Even typical kids can be affected emotionally by what's going on in social media sites because it can be one little thing that's said that then spreads like ripples in a pond and people keep posting against it and suddenly it becomes part of that person's persona (17).


Compromised Relationships

Adding to the relational/interaction information just presented, it is essential that we appreciate the difference between connecting and interacting. Studies have found that day-to-day interactions are based almost entirely on nonverbal communication. A study from UCLA found that when we send a message, its meaning is derived from three sources, 20% from words spoken/written, 25% from tone of voice and expressed attitude and 55% from body language (12). When we interact with others, we are continuously processing wordless signals like facial expressions, tone of voice, gestures, body language, eye contact, and even the physical distance between us and them. These nonverbal signals are the heart and soul of the interaction. We cannot understand the true meaning of an interaction if we do not have the ability to interpret these nonverbal signals (11).


In contrast, online interactions are devoid of emotions. One tragic example involves a mother, Sharon Seline, who often exchanged text messages with her daughter, who was away at college. One afternoon, they ‘chatted’ back and forth, with mom asking how things were going and daughter answering with positive statements followed by emoticons of smiles and hearts. Later that night, the daughter attempted suicide. Their relationship was comprised in the worst possible way. The signs of depression were there, but could only have been interpreted through face-to-face communications and the sharing of her emotional state (11). 


Oxytocin/Blue Light Addictive Stimulants

Studies show that the use of social media produced a calming, soothing, pleasurable effect that is chemically measurable in the brain. They show a 13.2% spike in users levels of oxytocin, and a reduction in a number of stress-related hormones (13). Perhaps this is why millions of people use these platforms – our brain feels good on them. Furthermore, this oxytocin stimulant response is reinforced by the “blue light” emitted on screens. Blue light, which in nature is most abundant in the morning, tells you to get up and get moving. Red light is more common at dusk and it slows you down. Now, guess what kind of light is streaming from that little screen in your hand at 11:59 P.M.? Your iPad, your phone, your computer emit large quantities of blue light," says sleep researcher and chemist Brian Zoltowski of Southern Methodist University (7).

Unfortunately, this “feel good” reaction can lead to an addictive usage- the need for constant connectivity and connection. Now guess what happens to our neurological, biological and psychological systems when these stimulants are removed for 24 hours? Research shows that after 24 hours following withdrawal, we experience mixed anxiety and depression, sense of loss/connectivity to others, restlessness, irritability and persistent excessive worries such as, “what others might be posting about me in my absence, what I might be missing out on, loss of social media status, loss of relationships” (1, 15). Metabolic changes are also reported by addicted screen users and manifested in weight loss or gain (10). If you want to do a quick check on your level of addiction, try to go one week without any screen time one hour before going to bed. Even better go at least two days with out using your smart phone and observe what happens to your body, feelings and thought processes.

Screen Induced Sleep Disorder

In a study of 10,000 16 to 19-year-olds, researchers in Norway found that the longer a young person spent looking at an electronic screen before going to bed, the worse quality sleep they were likely to have. Those who spent more than four hours a day looking at screens had a 49 per cent greater risk of taking longer than an hour to fall asleep and were three and a half times more likely to sleep for under five hours a night (4, 7).

Summary

I encourage you to read the reference articles. They provide much more detail supporting how screen exposure is changing our brain, how we think, learn, process information, relate, perform and produce.  Screen usage has its benefits (see http://uncw.edu/newsletters/flash/2015/02/social-media-and-emotional-health.html) but can also be harmful. Implications dictate ongoing scrutiny but also heeding the advice (found in reference articles) being given parents, teachers, office managers as well as screen users regarding managing screen exposure. 


References

1. Bennet, S. (2011). Is Social Media Ruining Our Minds? [INFOGRAPHIC]. Retrieved June 18, 2015 from http://www.adweek.com/socialtimes/this-is-your-brain-on-social-media/458276

2. Chopra, K. (2013). The Effects of Social Media on How We Speak and Write. Retrieved July 17, 2015 from 

http://www.socialmediatoday.com/content/effects-social-media-how-we-speak-and-write

3. Clark,K. (2014). Social media affects social skills, future jobs. Retrieved Juje 12, 2015 from http://www.bgnews.com/in_focus/social-media-affects-social-skills-future-jobs/article_d7500336-9394-11e3-a4de-001a4bcf887a.html

4. Cooper, C. (2015). Too much exposure to smartphone screens ruins your sleep, study shows. Retrieved July 29, 2015 from http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/too-much-exposure-to-smartphone-screens-ruins-your-sleep-study-shows-10019185.html

5. Education, Social Media (2013). Multitasking, social media and distraction: Research review. Retrieved July 7, 2015 from 

 http://journalistsresource.org/studies/society/social-media/multitasking-social-media-distraction-what-does-research-say#sthash.G4k47oZh.dpuf

6. Edwards, L. (2010). Brain splits to handle two jobs at once. Retrieved June 8, 2015 from http://phys.org/news/2010-04-brain-jobs.html

7. Fishman, J (2014). How Your Smartphone Messes with Your Brain—and Your Sleep. Retrieved august 1, 2015 from http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/how-your-smartphone-messes-with-your-brain-and-your-sleep/

8. Gaudin, S. (2009). Study: Facebook cuts productivity at work. Retrieved June 24, 2015 from http://www.computerworld.com/article/2526045/web-apps/study--facebook-use-cuts-productivity-at-work.html

9. Gomsner, J. (2015). This is what happens to your brain and body when you check your phone before bed. Retrieved August 1, 2015 from http://www.businessinsider.com/smartphone-impact-brain-body-sleep-2015-2

10. Greenfield, S. (2104). Mind Change: How Digital Technologies Are leaving Their Mark On Our Brain. NY. Random House

11. Margalit, L. (2014). The Emotional Involvement Behind Social Media Interactions. Retrieved July 29, 2015 from http://thenextweb.com/socialmedia/2014/07/19/emotional-involvement-behind-social-media-interactions


12.Oakes, D. (2012). What You Said Isn’t What I Saw. Retrieved July 29, 2015 from http://daveoakesseminars.com/what-you-said-isnt-what-i-saw/


13. Peneberg, A. (2010). SOCIAL NETWORKING AFFECTS BRAINS LIKE FALLING IN LOVE. Retrieved July 5, 2015 from http://www.fastcompany.com/1659062/social-networking-affects-brains-falling-love

14. Powell, K. (2014). How kids’ screen-time guidelines came about — and how to enforce them. Retrieved July 27, 2015 from http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/how-kids-screen-time-guidelines-came-about--and-how-to-enforce-them/2014/03/31/4a394c10-af9f-11e3-9627-c65021d6d572_story.html

15. Scarpelli, M. (2009). Social media’s Affect On learning. Retrieved  July 7. 2015 from http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2009/07/30/social-medias-effect-on-learning/

16. Strauss, V. (2014). Why a leading professor of new media just banned technology use in class. Retrieved July 27, 2015 from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/wp/2014/09/25/why-a-leading-professor-of-new-media-just-banned-technology-use-in-class/

17. Tanner, L. (2011). Docs warn about teens and Facebook depression. Retrieved July 20. 2015 from    

http://www.nbcnews.com/id/42298789/ns/health-mental_health/t/docs-warn-about-teens-facebook-depression/#.Va7BX4sorGk 


18. (2013). New Research from Common Sense Media Reveals Mobile Media Use Among Young Children Has Tripled in Two Years. Retrieved June 8, 2015 from https://www.commonsensemedia.org/about-us/news/press-releases/new-research-from-common-sense-media-reveals-mobile-media-use-among